The Relationship Between ADHD and Learning Disabilities

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a learning disability; however, it does make learning difficult. For example, it is hard to learn when you struggle to focus on what your teacher is saying or when you can’t seem to be able to sit down and pay attention to a book. You can have both. Learning disabilities (LD) and ADHD often co-exist. In his book, Taking Charge of ADHD: The Complete Authoritative Guide for Parents, Russell Barkley says children with ADHD are more likely to have a learning disability than children who do not have ADHD. ADHD and Learning Disabilities Learning involves using the executive functions of the brain particularly the ability to focus, pay attention, engage with a task, and use working memory. We know that ADHD affects the executive functions of the brain. In fact, Dr. Barkley says an accurate name for ADHD could be “Developmental Disorder of Executive Functioning.” Many people with ADHD can struggle with learning and schoolwork because of the executive function problems related to their ADHD, yet they do not have enough of an impairment to be diagnosed with an LD. When a person has co-existing conditions of ADHD and LD it means they have the broad impairment of executive functions combined with the impairment of the particular skills needed for reading, writing, and math. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities are neurological and are not a reflection of you or your child’s intelligence or how hard you are trying. A popular way to describe LDs is that your brain is wired differently and you receive and process information in a different way. Learning disabilities can make reading, writing, spelling, and math difficult. They also can affect your ability to organize and recall information, to listen and speak, and can impact your short term and long term memory and timing. The term learning disabilities is a collective term for a range of specific learning challenges. Learning disabilities are not problems with learning as a result of vision or hearing problems or learning in a second language, etc. People with learning disabilities often have average or above average intelligence and yet there is a discrepancy between their achievements and their potential. However, with the right support and interventions, they are able to close that gap and demonstrate their skills. Examples of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia: Reading disorder Dyscalculia: Math disorder Dysgraphia: Writing disorder Dyspraxia: Problems with motor skills Dysphasia/Aphasia: Problems with language Auditory processing disorder Visual processing disorder Impact Learning disabilities are often discovered in school because of problems with academic work. However, their effects go beyond the classroom walls. They can impact family relationships and life at home and at work. In addition, learning disabilities affect a child’s self-esteem. There is a general assumption that if someone is smart, they do well in school. However, this is not necessarily the case for someone who has an LD and ADHD. A learning disability means a pupil experiences problems with learning and demonstrating their knowledge in the traditional way. In addition, pupils with ADHD have difficulty conforming to the ideal behavior expected in schools, for example being able to sit still for long periods and pay attention without acting impulsively or daydreaming. A pupil realizes they are not able to do the tasks that other children seem to be doing easily. They can feel isolated and different. What Is Educational Psychology? Diagnosis When a person has more than one condition, it can be harder to recognize a second condition because they can mask each other. If you already have an ADHD diagnosis, it can be easy to attribute all your challenges to ADHD. In the same way that ADHD presents itself differently in everyone, so do learning disabilities, which makes recognizing them harder—there is not a definitive checklist. Like ADHD, there is a strong genetic component to learning disabilities.1 If you or your partner have an LD, your children could have one too. Remember, knowledge is power. Learn as much as possible about learning disabilities and ADHD. If you or your child have already been diagnosed with ADHD and are following a treatment plan but still facing challenges, it could be that there is another condition present. Who Can Make a Diagnosis? Different specialists are qualified to test and diagnose different conditions. There might be variations depending on where you live and an individual clinician’s qualification. Child psychiatrist: They can evaluate for ADHD but not an LD. Clinical psychologist: They can evaluate for both ADHD and LD. Educational psychologist: They can evaluate for an LD and, depending on their training, can evaluate for ADHD. Neuropsychologist: They can evaluate for both ADHD and LD. School psychologist: If they are working in a school, they can evaluate for an LD but not ADHD. However, if they are seen privately outside of school, they might be able to evaluate for and diagnose ADHD. Treating Both ADHD and LD It is important to treat both ADHD and LDs. For example, if your child is on medication to help with their ADHD, their learning disability problems will still persist. Or if they are receiving assistance for their LD, they will not get the full benefit if they are struggling with their focus and impulsivity. A Word From Verywell Neither ADHD nor learning disabilities can be cured. However, that does not mean you or your child can’t have a successful and happy life. There are many successful ADHDers with learning disabilities, including Richard Branson, founder of the Virgin empire, and Dr. Hallowell who has written over 20 books and helps millions of people with their ADHD challenges.

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